Levels of Strategic Management

Let’s remind ourselves that the basic meaning of corporation is large company. How does it stay alive? By using strategic management consisting of levels as explained below.

Corporate level:
Corporate level strategies are associated with going beyond the established business of the corporation. They can be broad and completely dissimilar to what already is in place.

The objectives of these strategies can be related to:
- Cost effectiveness/return on investment
- Gaining or maintaining market share
- Looking for new markets
- System integration solutions

Corporate level strategies help a business stay competitive, make more money and defend itself from any industry level future crisis occurring as a result of recession, deprecated system or change in regulations.

Divisional level:
Divisional level strategies focus on specific businesses being done by the corporation. To put it another way, each business may have one dedicated entity going by the name of strategic business or strategic service unit to come up with the strategies which may include arranging new division for a chosen new market and making the existing division more efficient so it can stand out against its rivals in a specific market.

Divisional level can be taken as necessary because on the top, people may not have full knowledge and time needed to arrange a division.

Organizational level:
A division consists of multiple organizations. Their services need to flow in a way to make a division run smoothly and compete against rivals. How to do it is what organizational level strategies focus on. Do notice the word service used earlier. What this signals is that organizational level strategies are made for services already set through divisional level strategies.

Unit level:
An organization can have multiple units different from each other, but their collaboration brings in efficiency. It is not possible without what we can call as unit level strategies. To understand it better think about an organization in engineering field. One unit has engineers. Then there is another that has human resources. They can work together in the same building, but their objectives are not same. Human resources unit does not do engineering work. They focus on engineering unit’s salary, benefits, number of people needed, implementation of rules and regulations. This is made possible through unit level strategies and they are based on human resources contents. But yes, both the units have one single objective to keep the organization alive because that’s how they keep their own jobs alive as well.

As you can see, the strategy levels are connected to each other from top to bottom. It is not important to have this exact style in place though. One can live without the other, signaling we have the freedom to add or subtract any of them. Much depends on how knotty our corporation is business-wise. In general, the levels can certainly make broad strategies easier to implement.

Cool Free Stuffs for Students

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In fact, you are jeopardizing your grades.

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Reduce the time needed to do a paper by taking care of tiny, but hard things upon which some of your grades rest. Take advantage of what is given below.

MLA Styled Template:
Sometimes professors will tell you that you must follow MLA format for your paper. You know quite well that manually focusing on that kills time. You don't want to be wrong either. Good news is that Microsoft now provides a completely formatted MLA template for free on their site. It is very detailed with instructions and examples.

All you have to do is simply plug in your stuffs to that template. Do remember after you do that you need to delete the square brackets or anything else not required by you. For instance, if you are not asked to include charts to your paper then in the template you delete the ones given by Microsoft. If your MS doc is older the template may not work. However, you can still copy the style example from it for your paper.



APA Styled Template (6th Edition):
APA style doesn't leave us alone. If you are used to MLA, that one is tricky. But relax, Microsoft provides template for that one also.



Memorization tool:
Good news, there is a memorization software available for free. It is called Anki. The best thing about this software is that it can help you memorize literally anything. The one we have below is made for windows. You can also get it for your android or iPhone.



Related: Bizarre Exam Preparation Techniques that Actually Work

Book for quantitative and qualitative methods of research:
As you can see on this website, we spend a lot of time talking about research. What if you found all in one? This is where the book below comes in handy.


Related: Valuable Resources for Survey Based Research

Grammar Book:
Consider yourself lucky for coming here. You now have access to a grammar book used by even writers. Its name is The Only Grammar Book You'll Ever Need: A One-Stop Source for Every Writing Assignment by Susan Thurman. You really want to hold onto it even after you finish school. It has a good list of corrected commonly misspelled words.



Related: List of Transition Words for Essays


Three Way Stretch and Location Flexibility: Two Flexible work alternatives to Use in Businesses

What if work schedules spoke the language of emotions? We all have certain things in life which need more of our attention. But work does not let us go to them. This is not true in all cases though. Consider three-way stretch and location flexibility:

Three-way stretch


In this arrangement, employees are given a wide range of schedules to choose from and cross training, but at the same time they are required to do occasional direct site work. This happens to be the core employment rules of retail stores where managers are required to compromise with college going employees because of their unpredictable class schedules and exams. So in a way, these students benefit from it. They are able to have income while completing their degree.

Since malls and fast food places have gone ballistic, three-way stretch is now a tradition all across America. The disadvantage for employees, but good news for the manager is that job hours in such places are based on "peak time" and in many ways can be described as temporary.

If people suddenly decide to stay away from the business due to seasonal issues, one can be told to leave for the day or forever. Those who show extra effort are retained by the retail stores for years, hinting that these employees are being successful.


The disadvantage lies in the fact that three-way stretch flexibility cannot be offered to all employees, for this would compel the human resources department and manager to spend more time in creating schedules.

Location flexibility

Through this, the employee is allowed to work from home. Its another title is remote work. Many organizations such as Facebook, Dell, American Express and Aetna frequently use this arrangement. Small businesses which cannot afford leasing an office space can also find benefit from it. Location flexibility is dream come true for workers who have ride problem or like to stay at home.

Surprisingly, research shows that output from remote work is usually better because the employees give their best through it with the assumption that it is their only way to prove themselves to supervisors not directly overseeing them. But the organizations listed earlier are all tech savvy and this means that those who work through computers can be more successful at remote work. Despite having less money, small businesses do not always have the privilege to utilize the arrangement.

Government itself may limit the thing for them based on industry and typically due to safety concern.  Location flexibility has also gained bad reputation from scammers promising work at home jobs. This controversy makes it difficult for businesses to get their job ads taken seriously by job candidates.

Massive Welfare Program Luring People into ISIS: The Real Story

It seems the media hasn't done a good job of exposing why people who never met a Muslim in real life are accepting ISIS' invitation to an extreme version of Islam and then moving to Syria to wage jihad to create an already doomed caliphate. It isn't elementary to rationally justify that a gore side of a religion can quickly transform simple minded western folks into baddies of 120 days of Sodom.

In a strange turn of events, Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster, the new national security adviser of Trump administration has made it clear that he isn't interested in scapegoating Islam to fight terrorism. In fact, he hates the term "radical Islamic terrorism". He says that the terrorists have changed the religion to fit it into their agenda. What he has mentioned should not be taken as some sort of politically correct statement. The answer to why people have been joining ISIS has always been sitting in front of us, but we have completely overlooked it by gluing our eyes to Islam.

Research confirms that financial benefits are at play, but how much of it would get someone to brutally kill those who don't agree with them while declaring that the world is in need of their extreme Islam? One single post by a female terrorist has the answer:
We will debunk her so called facts below

What is Evolutionary Strategic Change?

When the term is broke we get:
Evolutionary: Continues slow progress
Strategic change: Carefully planned move or shift

Definition

The evolutionary strategic change is what happens when new strategic directions come right in front of the eyes of management due to unpredictable things taking place in the environment. The process is rather slow and the strategies come one at a time in an ongoing basis.


It is all about continues modification of the technical sides of the business to make it positively adjust to the changing environment with the intention of helping the main strategy of the organization survive and succeed.In short, it is usually worth the effort.

Fitting management into the picture

Evolutionary strategic change does not occur in vacuum. The management, in point of fact, must attempt it by showing the willingness to learn and recognize the need for change in the strategies of the business operations. To put it another way, the approach requires auditing of those that are already deployed to see if they are going in flow and an openness to a wide variety of ideas coming from the employees because they are the ones responsible for the operations. They all have to work together despite being from different departments. Therefore, there is a need for culture in the organization which fosters the drive for evolutionary strategic change.

Example of Evolutionary Strategic Change

  • Upgrading of equipment to make the performance of workers efficient enough to respond to demands of the market quickly
  • Making use of fresh new technology of the world to reach out to customers
Think about the craze for apps
  • Gradual improvement of customer service
  • Fixing of uneven strategies of the ongoing operations

4 Ways to Make Grapevine Effective

Grapevine refers to a report circulating within an office or company through the mouths of employees. Traditionally, it can be either true or false, but has no official approval from the management.


Managers usually frown upon such reports thinking that employees should only be focusing on their work. They also find it dangerous in certain cases. For instance, a sour grapevine about merger can cause havoc among employees. The misconception make simply force them to not give their best anymore. Moreover, as the oral story moves from person to person, it can have a tendency to pick up more colors than needed. There is truly no way to ban such thing. Employees are just humans and they cannot always act way too formal in their conversation. So instead of trying to control the grapevine, managers should  use it in the best strategic manner. Here are four ways it can be made possible:

Performance improvement: Slipping a grapevine about a specific employee who has been praised by the management for performing well. How he did it should be included in the story. This can help others in the company learn what kind of quality is expected out of their performance.

Survey for decision making: Certain big decisions of employees are connected to the big decisions of their organizations. Fortunately, they don’t usually keep it a secret and this is where grapevine turns into a useful tool. If a manager wishes to know if such scenario may come into existence he has the option to insert possible organizational decisions into the grapevine to see how employees would react to them.
Fill in the blanks: Organization procedures are never without fault. A policy written in the most attentive manner, even after release, can look incomplete, ambiguous and lastly, inapplicable to employees. Grapevine can be used to fill them up with the correct words for clarification purpose.

Enhance Relationships: It is possible to sustain enthusiasm and satisfaction within employees through the grapevine medium. But no, the manager should not participate like a nosy neighbor in this. Instead the bold move should be made to inquire about specific ones in a friendly manner followed by a soft response. Such method would help the employees share a warm relationship with the manager which in turn would improve their ties with the company.

5 Market Research Components

Market research is simply about studying the specifics of a market by collecting data about it. It is helpful in perfecting the product, but also making a fair price for it. For the process to be carried, we need to have the following components:

1. Creating a specific intention for the research:
We can’t open a business or design a product on a whim and expect people to accept it. That is just impractical. People have their own taste which decides whether the creator will succeed. They make up the market, after all. It is highly important to know what they like and then live up to it. This can help the creator even steal a bit of the market share from the competitors. Knowing it all is the intention which must be defined in the first of the market research. This makes the next steps narrow and more organized. Also known as objective or purpose of the study, intention sets up the questions to be answered through the research. 

2. Collection of secondary data: 
Secondary data is defined as the information which already exists. Its first source for a well established business is the internal record. Consumer information can be extracted from it with much ease. For others, business literature and public census given by the government sites can be the major sources. In spite of being economical, secondary data is more likely to be outdated in some cases and because of this, it may not always portray the market accurately. 

3. Collection of primary data: 
Primary data comes directly from the public in the form of their response. For this, the business can decide to go for either surveys or experiments. The survey can be done through mails, internet, person interviews and so forth. The researcher can choose between quantitative and qualitative methods of research. Experiment, on the other hand, mimics lab tests to evaluate the cause and effect points associated with making changes to variables and seeing how potential consumers react to them.
Research instrument: This is the questionnaire to be used to start the process of gathering data. The series of questions to be used must be free of too much broadness as well as bias.  It is also important to include instructions and statements about ethical consideration.


4. Interpretation of the data:
Once the data has been collected it is important to turn them into easy to read information. Doing qualitative research here would reveal themes for the study. Quantitative research which usually provides responses in numeric form can be presented through graphics.  
To make the information easier to read, the researcher can use charts, pies and even tables. Both Excel and SPSS are convenient tools to make it possible. 

Discharge by Performance: Contract

Performance of the parties can trigger a discharge from the contract. This is what we call discharge by performance. This comes in 3 forms:

1. Complete performance: This is quite straightforward. If the performance promised in a contract is fulfilled without a single defect then the people who agreed to it are freed from the contract. Unfortunately, it is not so easy to reach the wholeness. That is why, the second one below is given more priority by the law.
2. Substantial performance: Substantial means sizable. To evaluate whether substantial performance is satisfied a party must show fulfillment of most terms found in the contract. The second thing he must prove is that his attempt to carry it out was genuine. Lastly, he never had any intention to dishonor the contract. Yet if some kind of failure occurs due to not satisfying other requirements stated in the contract the law can compel the sued party to pay money to the plaintiff.    

3. Performance Subject to Satisfaction of a Contracting Party: This is all about satisfactory performance. In other words, a person is discharged from the contract only after he shows that his performance is fully satisfactory. Of course, the other party receiving it judges him. For this, he can choose between subjective and objective evaluation methods.